Plant Transcription factor database - Universität Potsdam
version: 3.0

Populus trichocarpa GRF Family


Kim et al. 2003: Previously, we identified a novel rice gene, GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1 (OsGRF1), which encodes a putative transcription factor that appears to play a regulatory role in stem elongation. We now describe the GRF gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGRF), which comprises nine members. The deduced AtGRF proteins contain the same characteristic regions--the QLQ (Gln, Leu, Gln) and WRC (Trp, Arg, Cys) domains--as do OsGRF1 and related proteins in rice, as well as features indicating a function in transcriptional regulation. Most of the AtGRF genes are strongly expressed in actively growing and developing tissues, such as shoot tips, flower buds, and roots, but weakly in mature stem and leaf tissues. Overexpression of AtGRF1 and AtGRF2 resulted in larger leaves and cotyledons, as well as in delayed bolting of the inflorescence stem when compared to wild-type plants. In contrast, triple insertional null mutants of AtGRF1-AtGRF3 had smaller leaves and cotyledons, whereas single mutants displayed no changes in phenotype and double mutants displayed only minor ones. The alteration of leaf growth in overexpressors and triple mutants was based on an increase or decrease in cell size, respectively. These results indicate that AtGRF proteins play a role in the regulation of cell expansion in leaf and cotyledon tissues.

Members of this family
  SHOULD possess QLQ WRC domains

Domain alignments

This family is also present in:


There are 9 gene models in this family

Gene modelDescriptionDomains
244111 gw1.XIV.854.1 GRF QLQ WRC
548554 eugene3.00010995 QLQ WRC
548577 eugene3.00011018 GRF QLQ WRC
551755 eugene3.00021070 GRF QLQ WRC
740041 estExt_Genewise1_v1.C_290455 GRF QLQ WRC
751122 fgenesh4_pg.C_LG_I000725 GRF QLQ WRC
772495 fgenesh4_pg.C_LG_XII000270 QLQ WRC
774124 fgenesh4_pg.C_LG_XIV000034 GRF QLQ WRC
809905 fgenesh4_pm.C_scaffold_28000142 GRF QLQ WRC

General references

Kim, JH; Choi, D; Kende, H. 2003. The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 36(1):94-104 PUBMEDID:12974814