Plant Transcription factor database - Universität Potsdam
version: 3.0

Zea mays bHLH Family


Buck & Atchley. 2003: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of proteins is a group of functionally diverse transcription factors found in both plants and animals. These proteins evolved early in eukaryotic cells before the split of animals and plants, but appear to function in lsquoplant-specificrsquo or lsquoanimal-specificrsquo processes. In animals bHLH proteins are involved in regulation of a wide variety of essential developmental processes. On the contrary, bHLH proteins have not been extensively studied in plants. Those that have been characterized function in anthocyanin biosynthesis, phytochrome signaling, globulin expression, fruit dehiscence, carpel and epidermal development.

Members of this family
  SHOULD possess HLH domain

Domain alignments

Benchmark against A. thaliana

The Sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) were assessed for this family. The data reported by Bailey et al. 2003 for A. thaliana were taken as gold standard.

The gold standard reported 154 members for this family, 122 of which are present in ArabTFDB, giving a PPV of 0.92. Thirty-two additional members not present in ArabTFDB might be false negatives, giving a Sensitivity of 0.80.

This family is also present in:


There are 330 gene models in this family

Gene modelDescriptionDomains
AC177924.2_FGP038 HLH
AC185481.5_FGP045 HLH
AC186287.7_FGP040 HLH
AC191118.3_FGP045 HLH
AC197433.2_FGP035 HLH
AC197691.3_FGP034 HLH
AC211622.4_FGP040 HLH
AC215685.1_FGP032 HLH
GRMZM2G001879_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G001879_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G001930_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G004356_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G004501_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G006631_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G007562_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G008691_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G008898_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G009205_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G009478_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G009837_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G013411_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G013411_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G013411_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G013411_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G013688_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G014478_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G015493_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G015666_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G016039_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G016039_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G016039_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G016756_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G017145_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G017349_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G017586_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G017586_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G018472_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G018526_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G018526_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G018526_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G019806_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G020102_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G020102_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G020102_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G020316_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G020316_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G020316_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G021276_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G021276_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G021276_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G021276_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G021701_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G021927_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G022126_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G024530_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G027068_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G027563_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G029320_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G029523_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G030744_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G030744_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G030762_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G031042_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G033215_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G033356_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G033622_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G033826_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G035576_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G036092_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G036554_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G036727_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G038315_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G038479_T01_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G038581_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G038760_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G038760_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G042101_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G042893_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G042893_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G042893_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G042895_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G042920_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G043854_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G045109_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G045883_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G046493_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G046493_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G046493_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G048088_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G048088_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G048088_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G048873_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G048873_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G048873_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G048873_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G049229_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G049686_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G049817_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G049817_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G051874_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G051874_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G051874_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G051874_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G053012_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G057260_P01 HLH WD40
GRMZM2G057413_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G058451_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G059050_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G060359_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G060359_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G060359_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G060710_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G061052_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G061906_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G062458_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G062541_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G064071_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G064571_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G064638_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G065311_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G065311_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G065311_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G065311_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G065311_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G065374_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G066057_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G067654_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G068604_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G068863_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G069140_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G070269_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G072182_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G072376_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G074438_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G074439_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G074501_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G076636_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G076636_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G076636_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G078303_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G078303_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G078419_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G079516_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G080054_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G080054_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G080054_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G080168_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G080168_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G081816_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G081816_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G081816_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G082343_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G082586_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G082630_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G083504_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G083504_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G083504_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G083799_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G085467_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G085720_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G085751_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086204_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086216_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086474_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086474_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G086601_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086978_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G086978_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G086978_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G086978_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G087622_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G088443_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G089501_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G089501_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G089501_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G089501_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G089501_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G091003_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G091788_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G092091_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G092091_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G093423_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G093744_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G093744_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G093744_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G094819_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G094819_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G094892_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G094892_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G095899_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G097028_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G097346_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G097346_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G098353_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G100182_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G101350_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G101350_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G101350_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G102951_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G102951_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G102951_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G103650_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G103660_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G104777_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G104821_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G105745_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G105745_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G107276_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G107560_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G107672_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G111146_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G111146_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G111146_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G111666_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G111666_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G112629_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G112667_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G113257_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G114382_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G114444_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G114873_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G115960_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G115960_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G115960_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G116785_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G117690_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G117690_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G119823_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G120071_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G120071_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G123002_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G123303_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G128807_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G128807_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G132550_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G133675_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G134735_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G134901_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G135577_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G137358_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G137374_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G137541_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G139372_P07 HLH
GRMZM2G142932_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G142932_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G144275_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G144275_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G144336_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G145146_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G145579_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G145579_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G147685_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G148723_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G150327_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G150415_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G150935_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G151931_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G153454_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G153454_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G153707_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G153707_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G153707_P05 HLH
GRMZM2G153707_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G155043_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G155762_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G155905_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G159937_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G162382_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G162382_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G162450_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G162998_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G163233_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G163831_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G164341_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G165042_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G165090_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G165316_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G165399_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G165977_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G166642_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G166642_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G166642_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G170559_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G171464_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G171818_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G171818_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G172297_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G172795_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G173372_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G173372_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G173521_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G173534_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G173534_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G173862_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G173953_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G175480_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G175955_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G176141_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G176289_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G176289_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G176289_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G176813_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G176813_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G178182_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G178182_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G180406_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G180406_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G180452_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G180452_P02 HLH
GRMZM2G180452_P03 HLH
GRMZM2G180452_P04 HLH
GRMZM2G180452_P06 HLH
GRMZM2G181433_P01 HLH
GRMZM2G181433_P02 HLH

General references

Buck, MJ; Atchley, WR. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of plant basic helix-loop-helix proteins. J. Mol. Evol. 56(6):742-50 PUBMEDID:12911037
Heim, MA; Jakoby, M; Werber, M; Martin, C; Weisshaar, B; Bailey, PC. 2003. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20(5):735-47 PUBMEDID:12679534
Littlewood, TD; Evan, GI. 1995. Transcription factors 2: helix-loop-helix. Protein Profile 2(6):621-702 PUBMEDID:7553065
Massari, ME; Murre, C. 2000. Helix-loop-helix proteins: regulators of transcription in eucaryotic organisms. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(2):429-40 PUBMEDID:10611221
Quattrocchio, F; Wing, JF; van der Woude, K; Mol, JN; Koes, R. 1998. Analysis of bHLH and MYB domain proteins: species-specific regulatory differences are caused by divergent evolution of target anthocyanin genes. Plant J. 13(4):475-88 PUBMEDID:9680994