Plant Transcription factor database - Universität Potsdam
version: 3.0

Arabidopsis lyrata zf-HD Family


Windhovel et al. 2001: We are interested in the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the mesophyll-specific expression of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Members of this family
  SHOULD possess ZF-HD_dimer domain

Domain alignments

This family is also present in:


There are 17 gene models in this family

Gene modelDescriptionDomains
471652 fgenesh2_kg.1__1606__AT1G14687.1 ZF-HD_dimer
472107 fgenesh2_kg.1__2061__AT1G18835.1 ZF-HD_dimer
476603 fgenesh2_kg.2__1733__AT1G74660.1 ZF-HD_dimer
484166 fgenesh2_kg.5__158__AT2G02540.1 ZF-HD_dimer
484661 fgenesh2_kg.5__653__AT3G28917.1 ZF-HD_dimer
484662 fgenesh2_kg.5__654__AT3G28920.1 ZF-HD_dimer
485441 fgenesh2_kg.5__1433__AT3G50890.1 ZF-HD_dimer
488363 fgenesh2_kg.6__1497__AT5G15210.1 ZF-HD_dimer
492376 fgenesh2_kg.7__1809__AT4G24660.1 ZF-HD_dimer
494014 fgenesh2_kg.7__3447__AT5G39760.1 ZF-HD_dimer
888821 scaffold_101615.1 ZF-HD_dimer
894745 scaffold_201819.1 ZF-HD_dimer
895391 scaffold_202465.1 ZF-HD_dimer
900215 scaffold_304185.1 ZF-HD_dimer
916405 scaffold_704147.1 ZF-HD_dimer
917448 scaffold_800848.1 ZF-HD_dimer
919872 scaffold_803272.1 ZF-HD_dimer

General references

Windhövel, A; Hein, I; Dabrowa, R; Stockhaus, J. 2001. Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia. Plant Mol. Biol. 45(2):201-14 PUBMEDID:11289511