Plant Transcription factor database - Universität Potsdam
version: 3.0

Populus trichocarpa zf-HD Family


Windhovel et al. 2001: We are interested in the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the mesophyll-specific expression of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Members of this family
  SHOULD possess ZF-HD_dimer domain

Domain alignments

This family is also present in:


There are 23 gene models in this family

Gene modelDescriptionDomains
195088 gw1.IV.177.1 ZF-HD_dimer
199478 gw1.IV.4567.1 ZF-HD_dimer
209269 gw1.V.4670.1 ZF-HD_dimer
226451 gw1.X.1148.1 ZF-HD_dimer
249634 gw1.XIX.2034.1 ZF-HD_dimer
259091 gw1.XVII.1082.1 ZF-HD_dimer
265810 gw1.122.229.1 ZF-HD_dimer
272189 gw1.150.4.1 ZF-HD_dimer
276639 gw1.18512.1.1 ZF-HD_dimer
287849 gw1.41.334.1 ZF-HD_dimer
409977 gw1.II.1312.1 ZF-HD_dimer
419466 gw1.VIII.894.1 ZF-HD_dimer
421740 gw1.XII.200.1 ZF-HD_dimer
551009 eugene3.00020324 ZF-HD_dimer
554561 eugene3.00031194 ZF-HD_dimer
556359 eugene3.00041072 ZF-HD_dimer
571116 eugene3.00130480 ZF-HD_dimer
573738 eugene3.00190212 ZF-HD_dimer
593930 eugene3.00570174 ZF-HD_dimer
719528 estExt_Genewise1_v1.C_LG_VII3561 ZF-HD_dimer
736316 estExt_Genewise1_v1.C_LG_XVII1072 ZF-HD_dimer
761370 fgenesh4_pg.C_LG_V001422 ZF-HD_dimer
783231 fgenesh4_pg.C_scaffold_86000091 ZF-HD_dimer

General references

Windhövel, A; Hein, I; Dabrowa, R; Stockhaus, J. 2001. Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia. Plant Mol. Biol. 45(2):201-14 PUBMEDID:11289511