Plant Transcription factor database - Universität Potsdam
version: 3.0

Zea mays zf-HD Family


Windhovel et al. 2001: We are interested in the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the mesophyll-specific expression of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Members of this family
  SHOULD possess ZF-HD_dimer domain

Domain alignments

This family is also present in:


There are 30 gene models in this family

Gene modelDescriptionDomains
AC182105.3_FGP022 ZF-HD_dimer
AC188724.3_FGP033 ZF-HD_dimer
AC189066.3_FGP037 ZF-HD_dimer
AC190635.3_FGP038 ZF-HD_dimer
AC191373.3_FGP035 ZF-HD_dimer
AC193442.2_FGP029 ZF-HD_dimer
AC193997.3_FGP036 ZF-HD_dimer
AC209951.3_FGP029 ZF-HD_dimer
AC210108.1_FGP112 ZF-HD_dimer
AC212066.3_FGP028 ZF-HD_dimer
AC214515.3_FGP036 ZF-HD_dimer
AC216821.3_FGP021 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G009583_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G009583_P02 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G050856_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G051955_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G068330_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G068330_P02 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G068330_P03 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G068330_P04 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G069365_P01 Homeobox ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G071112_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G094754_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G094754_P02 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G116841_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G139332_P01 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G139332_P02 ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G141312_P01 Homeobox ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G141312_P02 Homeobox ZF-HD_dimer
GRMZM2G161315_P01 ZF-HD_dimer

General references

Windhövel, A; Hein, I; Dabrowa, R; Stockhaus, J. 2001. Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia. Plant Mol. Biol. 45(2):201-14 PUBMEDID:11289511